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科学家如何解释疾病

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本书涵盖了医学史,从希波克拉底的幽默理论到对疯牛病和慢性疲劳综合症的现代解释,都对科学思想的发展和接受进行了分析。它挑战传统的科学哲学和当代科学研究。 科…

9780691050836_20080117_150618

本书涵盖了医学史,从希波克拉底的幽默理论到对疯牛病和慢性疲劳综合症的现代解释,都对科学思想的发展和接受进行了分析。它挑战传统的科学哲学和当代科学研究。

科学家如何发展对疾病的新解释?这些解释如何被接受为正确的?当医生面对新的科学证据时,医学诊断将如何改变?这是保罗·萨加德(Paul Thagard)在这本具有开创性的书中提出的一些问题,该书开发了一种新的,综合的科学研究方法。

Thagard分析了医学史,从希波克拉底幽默理论到对疯牛病和慢性疲劳综合症的现代解释,分析了科学观念的发展和接受。这本书的核心是对消化性溃疡的医学认识最近发生巨大变化的案例研究,据认为其中大多数是由幽门螺杆菌感染引起的。当这种解释于1983年首次提出时,大多数医学专家都对它表示了强烈的怀疑,但是在接下来的十年中它被广泛接受。 Thagard讨论了发现和接受的心理过程,涉及仪器和实验的物理过程以及协作,沟通和共识的社会过程,这些过程促成了医学知识的这种转变。

科学家如何解释疾病既挑战传统的科学哲学,而传统的科学哲学将科学视为逻辑问题,而当代科学研究则将科学视为权力问题。保罗·塔加德(Paul Thagard)借鉴分布式计算和人工智能的理论,开发了新模型,这些模型将科学变革视为一种复杂的认知,社交和身体互动系统。

这本书将吸引所有对科学和医学发展感兴趣的读者。它结合了引人入胜的风格,重要的研究和有力的原始论据。

Ranging through the history of medicine, from the Hippocratic theory of humors to modern explanations of Mad Cow Disease and chronic fatigue syndrome, this book analyzes the development and acceptance of scientific ideas. It challenges both traditional philosophy of science and contemporary science studies.

How do scientists develop new explanations of disease? How do those explanations become accepted as true? And how does medical diagnosis change when physicians are confronted with new scientific evidence? These are some of the questions that Paul Thagard pursues in this pathbreaking book that develops a new, integrative approach to the study of science.

Ranging through the history of medicine, from the Hippocratic theory of humors to modern explanations of Mad Cow Disease and chronic fatigue syndrome, Thagard analyzes the development and acceptance of scientific ideas. At the heart of the book is a case study of the recent dramatic shift in medical understanding of peptic ulcers, most of which are now believed to be caused by infection by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori. When this explanation was first proposed in 1983, it was greeted with intense skepticism by most medical experts, but it became widely accepted over the next decade. Thagard discusses the psychological processes of discovery and acceptance, the physical processes involving instruments and experiments, and the social processes of collaboration, communication, and consensus that brought about this transformation in medical knowledge.

How Scientists Explain Disease challenges both traditional philosophy of science, which has viewed science as largely a matter of logic, and contemporary science studies that view science as largely a matter of power. Drawing on theories of distributed computing and artificial intelligence, Paul Thagard develops new models that make sense of scientific change as a complex system of cognitive, social, and physical interactions.

This is a book that will appeal to all readers with an interest in the development of science and medicine. It combines an engaging style, significant research, and a powerfully original argument.

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